Citing Quoting/ Referencing Well Academic Essay

Citingotherwise known as quoting?refers to using the direct words or ideas from a source other than yourself. I expect citing in your first paper. Though you should have learned how to cite texts in your last English course, I want a refresher and style guide to assist you. First and foremost, ANY time you use someones exact words, you must put quotation marks around those exact words and tell the reader who said or wrote those words. If you slipwhether on purpose or accidentally, it doesnt matterand use exact language without proper citing, you are automatically plagiarism. Much like killing someone, it doesnt matter whether you deliberately meant to quote someone improperly or notthe offense is offensive and punishable either way. You can tell the reader WHO is behind the quotes in one of two ways. Either put the authors last name in parentheses after the quote (no endnotes or footnotes), or openly name the author in the sentence you are quoting: In the case of instrumental evil, [t]he perpetrator wants something and is using violence or harm to get it (Baumeister 124). Or According to Baumeister, in the case of instrumental evil, [t]he perpetrator wants something and is using violence or harm to get it (124). Either way, the author of the quote is crystal clear. If the source has page numbers, include the page number of the quote, as you see above. If the source doesnt have page numbersif its an online source only, for instancethen do not put any page numbers, even if your print out of the online reading has page numbers. In some cases, you will have no clear author. This usually happens in the case of a reference source, like a dictionary. If so, either put the word you looked up in quotation marks in parentheses after the quote, or openly name the source and word you looked up in the sentence: Evil can be defined broadly as morally wrong or bad (evil). Or According to, evil can be defined broadly as morally wrong or bad (evil). If you look up the same word in more than one dictionary, then add the name of the source to the parentheses to avoid confusion. What if you dont quote a single word but paraphrase someone elses ideas? To paraphrase means to put someones ideas in your own words, which is often wise for the sake of clarity and efficiency. But paraphrasing STILL needs citing, just as if you quoted the words themselves. Thats because the author still deserves credit (or blame) for their ideas, just as much as their words. So be sure to name your sources for paraphrases as well as the sources you quote directly. Further advice: Control your quotes: Quoting is great because it directly shows what an author is saying, but quoting can also easily get out of your control. In other words, just quoting to quote is little better than not quoting at all. Your aim is to quote with CONTROL to maximize your sources without compromising your clarity The most common error I see with quotes is called the floating citation or hanging citation or naked citation. Its when your entire quote is ONLY one big quote with not one word of your own in it. BAD QUOTE: Evil is often destructive to the perpetrator in the long run, despite the short-term goals that may be achieved (Baumeister 125). Where are YOU in this sentence? The parenthetical reference does not count. If your sentence starts with a quotation mark and (pretty much) ends in a quotation mark, then youre making a style error. A simple fix is to add your own language SOMEWHERE to the sentence, even if its a simple Baumeister says before the quote. Ideally, youll merge your own language even more into the quote, as necessary, anyway. Likewise, its unusual to ever need to cite more than one sentence in a row. It does happen, but only in the case of really golden or perfect quotes. Block quoting?where you cite several sentences in a rowis, 99% of the time, unnecessary and lazy. Citing isnt copying and pasting; its USING sources alongside your own ideas to form a strong essay. So try to never cite more than one sentence. Its even rare to need to cite ONE sentence, unless that sentence is really short or well written (which does happens, but its rare). Instead, mix paraphrasing with quoting. Pick out key words and phrases that are most useful, and then put the rest of the meaning of the source in your own words. Examples: Quote 1: A prince should lie whenever telling the truth would be to his disadvantage or when the reasons for telling the truth are removed (Machiavelli 46). I prefer this citing style over the others. It shows the most control over the quotes; single words are plucked out, and the rest is paraphrased in modern English. OPTION 2: Machiavelli says, A wise ruler, therefore, cannot and should not keep his word when such an observance of faith would be to his disadvantage and when the reasons which made him promise are removed (46). PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET AN AMAZING DISCOUNT

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