1. Damage to the hippocampal complex results in a. Anterograde amnesiab. Retrograde amnesiac. Prosopagnosia d. Both anterograde and retrograde amnesia2. What is the difference between reproductive memory and reconstructive memory? A: Reproductive memory is accurate production of material from memory, while reconstructive memory is the active process of filling in missing elements of a memory during recall, which frequently leads to errors.B: Reproductive memory is the reproduction of events one has heard of, but not experienced, and assimilated into long-term memory, while reconstructive memory is the construction of memory around one instant snapshot in time.C: Reproductive memory is the active process of filling in missing elements of a memory during recall, which frequently leads to errors, while reconstructive memory is accurate production of material from memory.D: Reproductive memory is reproduced memory from a person in a vegetative, while reconstructive memory is memory reconstructed from degrading memory.3. False memories are: a. fabrications incorrectly claimed to have been witnessed b. real memories that seem fake c. lies people makeup to get attention 4. LTM (long-term memory) involves the following brain structures except:a. medial temporal lobeb. cerebellumc. reticular ascending formationd. amygdala 5. What is an event that can lead to false memory implantation?A: Inception a la the 2010 film, Inception. B: Watching too much television.C: Recovered Memory Therapy (RMT).D: Repression. 6. Long-term potentiation is based on the a. Pavlov Principle b. Marlow Principle c. Hebb Principled. Law of Evolution7. False memory is more likely to develop soon after witnessing an event rather than weeks later.a. Trueb. False8. Who is more susceptible to false memory implantation via interrogation/torture? A: Those who have previously undergone RMT, hypnosis, or another form an psychoanalysis. B: No one is any more or less susceptible than anyone else. C: People who watch too much television, read too many books, play too many videogames, or roleplay too often.D: Children, individuals with low intelligence, individuals who have never been interrogated before, individuals who suffer from mental illness, and individuals under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol. 9. Unlike STM (short-term memory), LTM requires all of the following except: a. cAMP/PKA pathway b. gene expressionc. activation of specific mRNAs at the synapsed. covalent modification of existing proteins ??.?.10. What is psychological repression? A: The conscious act of willfully not remembering trauma, postulated by Sigmund Freud. B: The unconscious act, postulated by Sigmund Freud, of pushing unacceptable urges, desires, and/or memories from the conscious mind where they would create anxiety. C: The unconscious act, postulated by Carl Jung, of ignoring and disregarding unacceptable urges, desires, and/or memories, and pushing them out of the conscious mind. D: The unconscious act of repressing certain traumatic memories.11. Foil Bias refers to a witness choosing the lineup member that most resembles the memory trace he/she has of the culprit. a. Trueb. False12. Switching from STM to LTM does not require: a. growth of new synaptic connectionsb. inactivation of memory suppressor genes c. traffic of mRNAs from the soma to the synapse d. serotonin decrease 13. Switching from STM to LTM does not require: a. growth of new synaptic connectionsb. inactivation of memory suppressor genes c. traffic of mRNAs from the soma to the synapse d. serotonin decrease 14. Which of the following does NOT increase the likelihood of developing false memory?a. Time to forget you made anything up b. Memory rehearsal c. Adrenaline d. Confidence coaching15. What is proactive and retroactive interference? A: Proactive interference is the content of new memories being disrupted by previously existing ones, and retroactive interference is the disruption of old memories by newly-formed memories.B: Proactive interference is the willful act of interfering with the process of short-term memories becoming long-term memories, and retroactive interference is the willful act of altering old memories after they are ingrained in long-term memory. C: Proactive interference is the disruption of old memories by newly-formed memories, and retroactive interference is the content of new memories being disrupted by previously existing ones.D: Proactive interference is the disruption of new memories by repression and/or reaction formation, and retroactive interference is the disruption of old memories by repression and/or reaction formation16. Expert witnesses attempt to encourage jury skepticism of eyewitnesses. a. Trueb. False??.?.17. What distinguishes forgetting from extinction?a. Extinction involves learning whereas forgetting does notb. Forgetting involves learning whereas extinction does notc. There is no difference between extinction and forgettingd. Forgetting occurs in humans and extinction in animals18. Aversion therapy helps people with paraphilic tendencies by associating _________ with their __________.a. positive stimuli/problemb. negative stimuli/paraphiliac. emotional stimuli/paraphiliad. conditioned suppression/therapist19. Variables affecting Pavlovian Conditioning include all EXCEPTa. Researcher Characteristicsb. Prior experience with CS and USc. The way stimuli are associatedd. The degree of contingency between CS and US20. Watson?s failure to use which of the following techniques prevented Little Albert from overcoming his learned fear:a. loud noisesb. classical conditioningc. counter conditioningd. conditioned suppression21. Which of the following social phenomena are solely the result of conditioning:a. love and affectionb. artistic abilityc. positive emotionsd. prejudice22. Using Pavlovian conditioning principles, can Spike the dog learn to replicate abstract works of art created by artists such as Picasso?a. Yes b. No23. Elvis was planning a conditioning experiment. However, he presented the CS many times to his subjects before training began. To his surprise, Elvis got very little conditioning in his experiment because the CS-alone presentation before training induced:a. External inhibitionb. Internal inhibitionc. Conditioned inhibitiond. Latent inhibition24. The blocking experiment devised by Kamin indicates that contiguity is not enough for conditioning to occur since:a. A very intense CS failed to enter the conditioning processb. A very intense US failed to enter the conditioning processc. An odor failed to enhance the strength of a CRd. CS-US pairings in a temporally close relationship failed to produce CR acquisition25. The success of Pavlovian Conditioning does NOT vary witha. Ageb. Genderc. Stress leveld. Temperament26. When using backward pairings of a shock US and a tone CS, Heth observed that:a. The CS quickly acquired properties that were difficult to extinguishb. The CS first acquired inhibitory properties; however, with more trials, the CS became excitatoryc. The CS first acquired excitatory properties, however, with more trials the CS became inhibitoryd. The CS quickly acquired excitatory properties that were difficult to extinguish.27. Based on Garcia?s bright, noisy, tasty water experiment, it appears that there is stimulus specificity in condition. For example:a. Tastes are better associated with pain and audiovisiual stimuli are better associated with illness.b. Tastes are better associated with illness and audiovisual stimuli are better associated with pain.c. Lights are better associated with illness and sounds are better associated with pain.d. Radiation is better associated with illness and tastes are better associated with pain.28. According to research, dislikes toward ethnic groups can be developed through:a. conditioned suppressionb. phobia reconditioningc. conditioned emotional responsed. therapeutic simulations??.?.29. Learning can be defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience.a. True b. False30. Organisms may ?learn? to adapt to change in their environment according to which of the following evolutionary mechanisms:a. natural selectionb. reflex reductionc. fixed action patternsd. aversives31. Counter-conditioning has been used by Vietnam Veterans to deal with cases of post traumatic stress disorder. This type of counter-conditioning is known as:a. classical conditioningb. higher-order conditioningc. virtual conditioningd. systematic desensitization32. What disorder is typical of savants?a. ADHDb. Dissociative Identity Disorderc. Schizophreniad. Autism33. A person with Hyperthymeisa would know:a. Every detail from their physics textbookb. Exactly what they were doing on March 3 of last year and who they were withc. The faces of everyone who was at their first birthday partyd. How tall $100,000 is in a stack of $100 bills34. Which doesn?t promote the acquisition of eidetic memory?a. Healthy Dietb. Good Sleep Routinec. Stimulantsd. Exercise35. Which is a way to improve the recall of information?a. Mnemonicsb. Methamphetaminec. Alcohol consumptiond. Vitamin C supplements36. Flashbulb memories are all except:a. Extremely Vividb. Extremely Accuratec. Longer Lastingd. Emotionally Charged37. Synesthesia is:a. Experiencing through multiple senses what most people experience through one sense.b. Improved memory due to the loss of a sensec. Caused by frequent drug abused. An extra piece of brain in the sinus? of a small fraction of the world?s population38. Name a memory issues that can develop during the lifespana. Alzheimer?sb. Lessened Working Memoryc. Lessened Prospective Memoryd. All of the above39. What are tasks that can help maintain memory strength?a. Physical exerciseb. Mental tasks and puzzlesc. Watching televisiond. Both A and B40. What are factors that can play along with fading memory?a. Healthb. Predispositionc. General agingd. Both A and B41: In what stage of our lives is our memory connectivity the strongest?a. Infancyb. Adolescencec. Mid-lifed. Old age42. Is memory declination general or individual?a. Generalb. Individual??.?.