Exploring the Effectiveness of Applying Vermeers Theory in Translating Tourism Brochures Academic Essay

Exploring the Effectiveness of Applying Vermeers Theory in Translating Tourism Brochures Translation is simply defined as a process of producing a target text or audio sound in a target setting in a target circumstance for a specific purpose and target addresses. The process of translation has evolved. As a result, several translation theories and models have been developed (Scott, 2000). Skopos theory is one of the translation theories that tried to redefine translation. Katharina Reiss and Vameer Hans made significant contributions towards development of Skopos theory (Vermeer, 2000; Reiss, 2000). Schjoldager (2008 p.17) defines translation as the replacement of material in its textual form in one language to a textual material in another language with equivalence. It plays a key role in enabling communication amongst members speaking different languages. Translation has the implication of understanding the source text by the in depth looking of the specified terms of the source and those of the language of target. For this reason, there is need for technical translator to be familiar with the subject matter of translation (Dann, 1996). Tourism brochures are usually detailed with information about a countrys or specific sites geographical location and broad details about accommodation, and the customs and the ways of living of people in and around that site. They play a great role in attracting tourists to newer countries and sites and should be well detailed to give all the required information about the site of target. For this reason, the language of use in brochures should be luring and well attractive as it gives a cultural description of the target society. Newmark, (1988) affirms that culture is the way of life and its manifestations that are peculiar to a community that uses a particular language as its means of expression. On the other hand, Vermeer puts it clear that language is part of a culture (Vermeer, 1989). 1.1 Statement of the Problem Exploring the Effectiveness of Applying Vermeers theory in Translating Brochures This qualitative content analysis research will focus on exploring the effectiveness of applying Katherina Reisss theory for translating tourism brochures. Translating pieces of information into varied languages can be a difficult task especially if the special text pieces have features, which may not be easily located in other existing texts. Overlooking some of the features in brochures, which are linguistically in nature, may lead to misinterpretation and distortion of meaning within the text. One tool that ensures production of high quality brochures is the application of Vermeers theory. This study aims at identifying the problems in the various areas of translating brochures for tourist consumption. It further looks at how effective a translated text can be if the translator applies the above-mentioned theory (Gotzler, 2001). This study shall go ahead to look at the priorities to be put into consideration and the tolerance level expected by the product consumers if certain principal mistakes in the brochures can be ignored provided that they at all costs do not have an effect on comprehension and the addressee is not misled. 1.2 Research questions Main Question: How effective is Katherina Vermeers theory on translating tourist texts? Sub Questions: What is the process of translation according to Vermeers theory? What is the implications of applying Vermeers theory in translating tourist texts? 1.3Purpose of the Study This study aims at establishing the existing gaps in the construction of English tourism brochures translated to Arabic and how Vermeers theory can be applied to fill this for high effectiveness. It purposes to bring together existing knowledge about such brochures and culminate them with Vermeers theory. 1.4 Significance and Justification of the Study Topic The topic of translating tourist texts and brochures to be specific is deficient and under-researched. There exist unsaid errors in strategic translating of such texts and materials with little tourism literature being published. On the other hand, there are tools, which have been put to very little use in solving these problems. Vermeers theory is one of these tools of great relevance in solving such problems if well applied. This paper aims at looking in a vivid perspective how such a tool can be of use in ensuring the effectiveness of its application in translating these brochures. 1.5 Limitations of the Study The area of tourism brochures hashad little research in the recent past. This paper includes an empirical study of the use of Vermeers theory in the effectiveness of tourism brochures. Different theories will be looked at in the perspective of translation then in a clear way compared to the theory in question. Since there is little research in this area, the body of empirical research is narrow to some extent. This shall only give way for inductive conclusions based on the generalizations made. 1.6 Theoretical Background and Concept of the Study The world is a global village and its inhabitants have the tendency of traveling in quest for discovering new place, societies, and cultures (Nord, C (1991). Promoting tourist destinations in Arabic countries is very important for travel agents because of the high number of Arabic tourists. The language of tourism attempts to seduce millions of people to become tourists. There are varied ways of promoting these destinations ranging from digital advertisements, seminars, and print media. One of the successful ways to raise the tourism sales is with brochures. This paper seeks to establish how effective such brochures can be if Vermeers theory is applied in their construction. This paper got its inspiration from Vermeers skopos theory. This is a translation theory put forth by the German translator, Vermeer in the year 1978. This theory indicates the translational process is a characteristic of the function of the product and the function is dependent on the addressees specifications. It is a functionalist approach theorem with the major objective of dethroning the source text (ST) through putting emphasis on the translators role as the producer of the target text (TT) with lots of priority being given to the purpose (skopos) of creating the TT. Functional equivalence theories are communicative translation theories. They focus on the function or functions of the source text and the target text. Functional equivalence refers to rendering the function of an SL item into an equivalent TL counterpart that suits a similar context. The translator will read a sentence as a whole unit of translation in the SL, try to understand it as well as possible, and then translate it to TL. In light of the fact that translation has evolved into a complex human process on one hand and translation process needs to be descriptive on the other hand, it might be unreasonable to ignore some other factors (Vermeer, 2000). This kind of situation necessitated development of Skopos theory, which perceives translation as a process with purpose and thus tried to come up with new views such as the source text (ST) and target text (TT) status and relationship, role of translator, translation concept, translation strategy and translation standards. Ideally, Skopos theory gives translation theory a perspective that is not limited to normal source-text oriented views (Reiss, 2000). In the sections that follow, this theory of translation alongside other applicable theories. A brief review of literature related to this study shall also be looked at. 2.0 Literature Review Communication is a key factor towards the success of any product. Tourist brochures play an important function in the display of technical data with the intent of advertising. Tourism sales are not exclusion for better communication and the path towards great outcomes. Globalization on the other hand has brought the tendency of people touring the world all over, hence a call for effective communication. One tool for effective inter language communication is translation. Vermeer (1989) in his article Skopos and Commission in Translational Action, puts to limelight his skopos theory. He explains translation as an action whose major objective is to establish a lead to the targeted text. He asserts that the goals of the methods and strategies of translation should be realized by determinations from a commission put forth by the client or the translator. To affirm this, Vermeer (2000 p.229) explains, The target text, the translatum is oriented towards the target culture, and it is this which defines its adequacy. It therefore follows that source and the target text may diverge from each other ??not only in formulation and distribution of content but also as regards the goals which are set for?? in this case , only the contextual meaning of the text should be put to consideration with no distortions.Nord , (1997) explains that Skopos is a Greek word for ??purpose. According to skopos theory, the basic principle that determines the process of translation is the purpose (skopos) of the translational action. The idea of intentionality is part of the very definition of any action. Reiss (1984: 101) affirms that the skopos theorem has the implication of the action of translating a product of its purpose (skopos) Reiss explains, The end justifies the means. Vermeer, (2000 p. 237) explains that the skopos must be defined in the commission and should give a wide range of possibilities for translating while liberating the translator from the shackles of enforced and meaningless literalness. In this case, the accountability of the translator is highly ensured and the goals of translation are highly achieved. It is vital for translators to be conscious and translate within the given skopos (Schjoldagar, 2008 p.154). Varied methods of translation in tourist brochures can be applied. One of the key methods of translation is presupposition. Nord (2005 p. 106) affirms that presupposition gives all the required information i.e. the presupposed information. This greatly shows the horizon of the receiver. Schjoldagar (2008) gives additional information to Vermeers theory. She puts forth the taxonomy of micro strategies in translation. Some of the stages of translation according to her include direct transfer, claque, direct translation, oblique translation, explicitation, paraphrasing, condensation, adaptation, addition, substitution, deletion, and permutation (Hickey, 2004). Reiss (1989) supported Skopos theory but brought onboard an additional functionality approach. Her approach does not focus on the sentence but instead considers text as a unit of translation and thus the whole text forms the basis of equivalence. The functionality approach classifies text into three, namely, informative text, expressive text and operative text. The linguist argues that the informative text communicates the intended message and thus it should be a key focus. Informative text communicates plain facts, knowledge, information and opinion and thus the referral or logic dimension of text should be considered. The operative text on the other hand, is appellative in that it makes the reader act in a certain way; persuading, requesting, dissuading or cajoling. Expressive text concentrates on aesthetic or creative composition. In this type of text, both the sender and the message are fore-grounded. The linguist further explains that in case translation focuses on audio or visual representation, the medial platforms supplements the three text types. Reiss (2000) argues that understanding text type is an important aspect in successful translation. Unlike Reiss, Vermeer argues that the purpose of translation is imperative to successful translation. The linguist argues that as per the arguments of action theory, every message senders action has a purpose and owing to the fact that the basic reason of translation is communicating the intended action, it should have a purpose (Vermeer, 2000). Commission assigns purpose to every translation. Therefore, Vermeers proposition is target-oriented as opposed to source-orientation. Skopos theory developed after the contribution of Vermeer, Reiss and other linguists provides a framework that satisfies deficiency of other conventional translation theories. Nonetheless, it is important attention on the fact that the two different propositions of Vermeer and Reiss might result to different connotations of some concepts (Reiss, 2000). If a given site is to attract tourists, then its brochures should be carefully creative with a keen consideration not to exaggerate. This is a key factor towards ensuring that a given brochure is effective. Lofferdo and Porteghella (2006 p.9) define creativity as a spontaneous process that has a direct association with an individuals freedom. The clear interpretation for this statement is the fact that the person in question has the freedom to express his or her thoughts by putting it in writing. 3.0 Data and Methodology To effectively accomplish the requirements of this section, it is imperative to look at the role, and nature of tourism brochures. Simply, the role of such brochures is to persuade people from other places to visit a tourist site Leo Hickey (2004). Data is collected from online tourist brochures from English to Arabic. This study focuses on the analysis of selected random paragraphs of tourist text to examine how it is translated into Arabic and how the translation approach is affected by the purpose of the text and text type, and how to consider the culture of the target audience. These kinds of brochures play a great function in analyzing how effectively the translators communicated to the tourists. The paper also looks at the gaps presented by these selected brochures and various ways of making them effective in conveying the intended information. 3.1 Research Design The brochures used in this paper came from official tourist website. Selected brochures had to meet the qualifications mentioned below. They had to be written in English and Arabic They had to be from official agents or sources. The language register should be rhetorical The function of the text should be informative and persuasive. 3.2 Procedures This study attempts to explore the communication of tourism message through analysis of tourism translation from ST in English language to TT in Arabic language, especially focusing on issues of linguistic, semantic, and cultural differences. The tool that which will be used in this analysis, is Vermeers theory in culmination with other relevant theories of translation. 4.0 Analysis of tourism examples 1/ ST: INSTANT ROME ROME IS THE CAPITAL OF THE ITALIAN REPUBLIC. It is the most populous and largest municipality in Italy and is among Europes major capitals in terms of the amount of terrain it covers. HISTORICAL AND ARCHITECTURAL RICHES It is the city with the highest concentration of historical and architectural riches in the world. Its historical centre, outlined by the enclosing Aurelian Walls, layering nearly three thousand years of antiquity, is an invaluable testimony to the European western worlds cultural, artistic and historical legacy and in 1980 it was, together with the Holy Sees property beyond the confines of the Vatican State as well as the Basilica of St. Paul outside the Walls, were added to UNESCOs World Heritage List . TT: ?¤?????? ??? ???£???¤ ?¤?????? ???? ?????‘???? ?????¦???????¤???? ????????£???????? ???? ??????¤ ???????????? ????£???????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????? ?????? ????¤?????? ???????????‘?? ?????????¤???????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ???¤??????????. ???????????¤ ?????????¤???????? ???????????????¤???? ???? ?????????????? ?‘???????? ???????? ???????? ???¦?????? ???????????¤ ?????????¤???????? ???????????????¤???? ???????????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ???????£ ?????????¤ ?????¤?????????? ?????? ?????¤????? ?????????? ???? ???????¤?? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????????¤ ???? ???????¤???? ?????????¤???????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ???????¤???? ?????????¤???????? ????? ?????? 1980 ???? ??????¤?¦???? ?????????????? ????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????????????? ??????????¤???????? ???????????? ???????? ?????¤?¦ ?????????????¤?? ??? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????¤???? ???????????????. The above example is taken from Romas tourism official website. I analyze translation in Arabic with focus on text type, translation procedures by Peter Newmark, the grammar and lexical aspects of the language in terms of the target groups, their culture, etc. The text type is informative and operative. This kind of text influences the tourist to visit Rome. In this text, the translator applied different kinds of procedures. Instant means in Oxford dictionary as immediate and it is translated to ??? ???£???¤. The headline is translated dynamically rather than formally. The Translator used this procedure in the headline to be catchy in order to attract the readers attention. The sentences ROME IS THE CAPITAL OF THE ITALIAN REPUBLIC & It is the most populous and largest municipality in Italy and is among Europes major capitals in terms of the amount of terrain it covers are translated literally; a direct transfer of a SL into a TL. It is noted that the SL used superlatives with adjectives such as most populous / largest and this is the main feature of the tourist texts. In the subtitle HISTORICAL AND ARCHITECTURAL RICHES , the word riches is translated to ???????????¤ .In Oxford dictionary, the word riches means valuable or abundant resources. The choice of the word ???????????¤ is successful because this specific word is used very common in tourist texts and it indicates that Rome is rich in its historical and archaeological sites. In the first sentence the phrase the highest concentration is translated to ???????? ???????? ???¦?????? because one of the meanings of concentration in Oxford dictionary is A close gathering of people or things and this meaning fits to the context. For this reason, it is important for the translator to look for the different meanings of each single word in order to choose the best equivalent in TL. The target text has seen some additions such as a word, a phrase, or a clause in order to make the translated text appear natural in the target language. The translator added ???????? ???????? ???????????? which is not stated in the ST in order to add extra information and convey the meaning effectively. The word antiquities is translated to ?????????? instead of ???????¤ . I believe that the word ???????¤ is better in this context because it carries the meaning of oldness especially the period of human civilization. Also, the translator transferred the SL word into to TL text in its original form through transcription such as, ?????????¤ ?????¤???????? , ????????????????. invaluable testimony is translated to ?????????¤. Testimony in Oxford dictionary means Evidence or proof of something and the word invaluable means Extremely useful. The TL word ?????????¤ means : ???????? ?????¤ ??? ???????? ???????¤?? ?????????¤?? ?????¤??????? ????????????¤????? ?????????¤ ??????????¤???? ???????????¤???? ????????¤???? ???????????¤ ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????¤????? In this example, the translator did not translate it literally as ?????????? ???????? and made this successful choice of word ?????????¤to maintain the function of the source text and to create a communicative effect with the target receiver. UNESCO is known officially as ?????????? ????????????????? ???????¤???? ?????????????? the translator needs to replace the word ??????????????? to ??????????????. This procedure is known as recognized translation. 2/ ST: THE BLOND TIBER The Blond Tiber is the river God once referred to in the elegies of ancient Rome, a God demanding respect and love which is indeed how, in a certain sense, it has remained in the minds of Romans. Over time however, they have lost contact with the river flowing through the city between the left bank, the historic centre, and the right, which was one time called the suburbs. TT: ???????????¤ ???????????¤ ??????? ????? ????????? ????? ?????????¤ ??? ???¤?????? ?¤?????? ???????????????? ????? ????? ???????? ?????????¤???? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?¤??????. ????? ?????¤???¤ ???????????? ????????? ?????????‘???? ?????????????¤ ???? ???????¤???? ???? ???????? ?????????¤ ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ????‘?? ????????? ?????????¤???? ???? ???????? ?????????????? ???? ????????? ???????????? ???? ???? ??????? ??????????? ????????????????. In the above subtitle, the translator transfers an SL word Tiber into TL ???????????¤ in its original form (transliteration). In the beginning of the paragraph, the translator added such as ??????? ????? ???????? which is not stated in the SL to make the translated text appear communicative and effective as in the SL. Another reason is because the translator takes into consideration the target language grammar. The Arabic sentence is started with the demonstrative ??????? to identify the noun the Blond Tiber and the word ? is used for assertion. The rest of the sentence is translated literally with the same use of the comas in the TL. In the second sentence, the translator added the word ?????????????¤ in the TL and this addition to give more explanation of how the contact will be. The phrase the river flowing is translated to ???????¤???? ???? ???????? ?????????¤ ???????????? ???????????? to attract the TL readers to come and see the place and give the reader a clear vision about the river. The additions in the TL text is because the audience love to hear and read more details about the destinations and for the purposes of increasing the effect on the audience. The word centre is translated to ???? instead of ???¤??? in the TL which is a successful choice of word because the word ????indicates that the place is old. the plural word suburbs is translated to singular ?????????????? to make the TL text appears natural and effective as in the SL. 3/ ST: PROVERBS There are variety of proverbs and sayings concerning or naming Rome: ?? Three things are needed in Rome: bread, clothing and patience (A Roma ci vogliono tre cose: pane, panni e pazienza) ?? He, who Rome does not see, believes in nothing (Chi Roma non vede, nulla crede) ?? It matters not to go to Rome for penitence (Non importa andare a Roma per la penitenza) ?? When in Rome, do as the Romans do (Quando a Roma vai, fai come vedrai) ?? In Rome, there are those who have had nothing in a hundred years, those who had much in three days (Roma, a chi nulla in centanni, a chi molto in tre d?¦). ?? Rome was not built in one day (Roma non ?? stata costruita in un giorno). ?? All roads lead to Rome (Tutte le strade portano a Roma) ?? To know Rome, a life does not suffice (Per conoscere Roma non basta una vita). TT: ???????????? ???????????? ?????¦?? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ???????¦???????? ???????? ?????‘?? ???¤?????? ???? ??????¤?? ??????: ?? ??? ?¤?????? ?????????¦ ???????????? ??????????: ?????????? ?????????????? ???????‘???¤. ?? ???? ???? ???¤?? ?¤???????? ???? ???‘???? ????????.- ?? ???? ?????? ???????????? ????? ?¤?????? ???????????¤ ???? ????????????. ?? ?????????? ???????? ????? ?¤???????? ??????? ???? ???¤????. ?? ??? ?¤???????? ???? ???? ????‘???? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?‘?????????? ??? ?????????? ????????. ?? ?¤?????? ???? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????????. ?? ??? ?????£?¤?? ???????? ????? ?¤??????. ?? ??? ?????¤? ?¤?????? ???? ??????? ???????? ??????????. In the above example, the translator translated the word proverb to ???????????? ?? ?????????? which gives the reader more explanation and a clear understanding. In the first sentence the phrase concerning or naming Rome is translated to ???????? ?????‘?? ???¤?????? ???? ??????¤?? ?????? . In my opinion, the TL phrase seems to be complicated and not easy to read. I suggest to replace the phrase to one word which is ???? ?¤?????? . In fact, the TL readers in tourism texts need to read short and simple phrases and sentences. The first three proverbs are translated literally but different word order. The TL proverbs are grammatically and semantically correct, but are not typically used in the TL. In the fourth prover, the translator translated the sentence do as the Romans do to ??????? ???? ???¤???? instead of ??????? ???? ????????? ?????¤??????????????which is a smart decision because the translator showed his/her respect to the TL Arabic culture. The fifth proverb is translated literally with the same word order. In the sixth proverb, the SL number one is translated to three in the TL which is different number. The translator chose to maximize the number of days in the TL to avoid exaggeration. This kind of communicative translation respects the TL culture. The seventh proverb is translated literally with the same word order and used in the TL. In the last proverb, the translator added the word ?????????? in the TL for the purpose of emphasizing and increasing the effect on the audience. 5.0 Findings 6.0 Conclusion Vermeers theory is one among the theories with a universal acceptation and considered as the best tool and model of translation. It is meant to ensure that any translation made with its application is justified by its procedures and its purpose (skopos) must always be in tandem with the intentions of communication of the originator. Tourism is a great source of revenue to developing countries. There is need to formulate distinct ways for marketing this venture (Agomi, 2012)). The use of brochures has proved to be the most effective tool for doing this, particularly in Arab countries. On the other hand, there is tendency for translators to mislead them when designing these brochures. For this reason issues with relationship to the source text, ST, play a very great aspect in translation and should never be dethroned. Despite its effectiveness, this theory lacks the aspect of allowing the translator to make a follow up of his work, as he may deem necessary. This rule can be interpreted in a Laymans language as ??a means justified by the end. It is therefore justified to make an implicative conclusion that according to this theory, that the TT function and the TT addressee both give information that is both implicit and explicit. This theory deeply implies the role of the translator as the designer of the text whose role design information texts with the ability to make a maximum function. Tourism is a great source of revenue to developing countries. There is need to formulate distinct ways for marketing this venture (Agomi, 2012)). The use of brochures has proved to be the most effective tool for doing this, particularly in Arab countries. On the other hand, there is tendency for translators to mislead them when designing these brochures. Application of Vermeers theory in this venture will see it go to great milestone. References Agomi M. (2012). Questions of Mediation in the Translation of Tourism texts.ConfiniMobili: 2: 1-11. Cappeli, G. (2006): Sun, Sea, Sex, and the Unspoilt Countryside. How English Language Makes Tourists Out of the Readers.Parl Publishers, Parl. Cheng, C., & Chiu, M. S. (2004). A new databased methodology for nonlinear process modeling.Chemical Engineering Science, 59(13), 2801-2810. Dann, G. M. (1996). The language of tourism: a sociolinguistic perspective. Cab International. Gotzler, E. (2001). Contemporary Translation Theories: London and New York, Routledge Hickey, L. (2004). Perlocutionary pursuits: persuading of/that/to. Navarro Errasti MP et al, 57-79. Loffredo, E., &Perteghella, M. (Eds.). (2006). Translation and creativity: Perspectives on creative writing and translation studies. Bloomsbury Publishing. Newmark ,P(1988). A textbook of translation (Vol. 1, 988) New York :Pretince Hall Nord, C. (1991). Scopos, loyalty, and translational conventions.Target, 3(1), 91-109. Reiss , K., and H. Vermeer (1984). Groundwork of a General Theory of Translation, Tubingen :Neimeyer. Schjoldager, A. (2008). Understanding translation.Academica. Vermeer , H.J. (2000), Skopos and Commision in Translation Action ,in Lawrence Venuti (ed). The Translational Studies Reader, London, New york : Routledge, 221-32 Vermeer, H. J. (1989) Skopos and Commision in Translation Action ,in Andrew Chesterman (Ed), Readings in Translational Theory. Helsinki OY Finn LecturaAb, 173-87.

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