finding and discussion

1,I asked 85 international students, only 31 of them use credit card. So, I only send my questionnaires to 31 person. You can take my sample size as 31.2, their nationalities :mainland of China 16,Hong kong 5,poland 3,japan 2,south Korea 2,Taiwanese 1,India 1,Nigeria 13,their monthly usage:under ?200 3 person ,?200-500:8 person, ?500-1000:11 person,beyond ?1000 6 person(3 person choose not to answer this question)4,29 of them got money support from their parents,2 of them use their own money5,why they use credit card ? In case of emergency 7 person,the requirement from their parents 19 person,want to build their credit record 2 person,other reason 3 person (Credit card reward points too, Province of international transfer fee)6,how much do they know about credit card:very well 8 person,basic knowledge 17 person ,not at all 6 person7,their major :business&management 22 person,engineering 5 person, social science 4 personIf you need anything more,,, you can use your own imagination. It does not matter at all.CHECK LISTFindings(600-800 words)? Brief introduction with some reference to research questions 0000? Key points from the data, highlighted and supported by graphs and charts (if applicable, grouped by questionnaire sections). Do not simply include a question-by-question summary of answers. 0000? Clear labels for graphs and charts 0000? In-text signposting of visuals (e.g. As can be seen from Figure 1?.) 0000? Brief summary of results 0000Discussion(600-800 words)? Brief introduction with some reference to research questions 0000? Comparison of your results with the results of previous studies 0000? Speculation as to why any results may be different 0000? Mention of how limitations of research design may have affected results 0000? Comment on the findings 0000? Summary 000An investigation into factors that influence credit cards usage among theinternational students in GlasgowIntroductionPrevious studies indicate that there is an increase in terms of international students studying in the country; this study found out that apart from the increase in the number of international students, there expenditure has also increased as well (Boddington & Kemp 2009: 89; Brooking 1997: 2). Durkin (2006 : 623) asserts that the usage of credit card in Scotland is over 1, 013 million credit cards were being used by the student group in 2011 while this figure was estimated at 1, 376 in 2013 (Dodge 2013 : 39; Durkin 2006 : 623). On the other hand, Lovelock and Wright (1999: 67) asserts that spending among the international students was approximately $14.2 billion each year. This implies that international students form a special market group in the credit card market. However, despite the international students credit card holders being influenced by other credit cardholders at the universities; usage of credit cards for convenience and in times of emergencies rate higher in the factors. This study argues that one of the reasons for this is that the international students are far away from their family and relatives and therefore more concern on emergencies unlike other university students coming from within the country. Little information is available on the explanation on usage of credit card for emergencies among the international students.Despite this, there arelimited information on the influencing factors amongst this student group on the usage of credit card. Credit card usage has been welcome among the international student group in the country; According to Grady (2008: 101) the reasons differ from student to student, although one of the commonly held views is that the students consider as a convenient way to make payment.Previous studies have been concerned with the usage of credit card amongst university students; however, the literature available is quite general on the usage of credit card amongst the students (Warwick and Mansfield 2009: 617). No attempt has been made to document the factors influencing credit card usage amongst the international student group. According to Zhu et al. (2010: 403), the international student group has different factors compared to the local students influencing the usage of credit card, although their literature is limited. This literature evaluates the nature of this particular group in terms of usage of credit card compared to the local students so as to explore the factors influencing the use of credit card among the international students. The main factors to be explored are convenience factor, holding the credit card because of day to day operations and financial difficulties in their home country and also because of the financial challenges they face at school since some of them come from poor background.Factors influencing Credit card usage among International StudentsConvenienceOne of the factors influencing the use of credit cards among the international students is convenience. Previous evidence on this subject have articulated the importance of convenience on the use of credit cards amongst university students (Allen & Jove 1997: 162). However, one of the limitations of these studies is their failure to provide more information on the differences in terms of convenience regarding the use of credit cards among university students both the native and international. This study intends to find out why the international students consider the option of buying today and then pay later as more convenient than the native students. Other studies indicate that the international student group has some unique characteristics different from other credit card users in the universities (Lyons 2004: 56). In this study, it is shown that international students are often considered bright and more highly motivated students back in their home countries and because of this, they are given financial help, scholarships or work study opportunities; meaning that their source of income is secure that is a good opportunity for the credit card companies to pay attention to this market segment.Day to day operationsAnother factor which influences credit card usage among international students is the students? need for day to day operations and handling of their family needs back in their home country (Norvilitis et al. 2006: 1395). Previous studies have shown that majority of the international students come from poor economic countries (Zhu et al. 2010: 403). While other similar studies indicate that poor economic conditions force majority of the students to make use of credit cards (Piercy 2001 : 6); they are limited to provision of more information and also no new studies on this subject as the behavior of students often change over time. Thus this study adds to this literature; despite the economic challenges back at their home country; catering for the needs and day to day operations at the university is higher up in their hierarchy of needs. Other similar studies indicate that unlike the native university students, the international students are challenged to adjusting to the new environment in the country (Lyons 2004: 56). From the economic point of view, majority of the international students take years to adjust to the economic system in Scotland; this places most of these students with no definite choice on what to do or risk losing their financial control at a time when they experience difficult or a more complicated economic system in comparison to that in their home country which they have not experienced before (Norvilitis et al. 2006: 1398).Financial Challenges in new environment??.Another factor is the financial challenges which the students face in school. The study by Warwick and Mansfield (2009: 617)indicates that credit cards become the most available solution to their challenges. Studies on similar subject show that most of the international students have no information on the usage of credit cards before they move into the country (Ornstein 2011: 76). The same studies by Ornstein (2011: 75) indicate that some of these students do not have sufficient knowledge on card, the usage of credit cards or how to get one. However, Ornstein?s ideas were more focused in Australian universities. International students often tend different behavior in different countries. The reason why this study is concerned with the students in Glasgow; when the international students find out that there is an option where one can use the credit card and pay later; they opt for the same considering some of them have come from needy financial backgrounds. Financial challenges which the international students face in the new environment or lack of family or relative close to them means that they need the credit cards more than the native students (Allen and Jove 2007 : 168). Thus the nature of holding the credit cards can be described as being conservative unlike the native university students (Norvilitis et al. 2006: 1396).ConclusionThis literature review is seen as way of providing more information on the state of international students in terms of credit card usage and the marketing opportunities which they present to the credit card companies. The most important studies on this subject were carried out by Grady (2008) and Durkin (2006). This is because they provided a general behavior of international students regarding credit card usage. Although there is extensive research on the usage of credit card among university students; the underlying behavior among the international university students has not been explored.On this context, this study seeks to answer the following questions:? What are the factors contributing to the usage of credit card among the international university students in Glasgow?? What are the attitudes and perception of the international students on the usage of credit cards?? What characteristics define the international students towards the use of credit cards in Glasgow?Word account: 1270ReferencesAllen, J. L. & Jove, M. A. 2007. Credit Card behaviour of University Students: Ethnic Differences. Journal of Consumer attitudes, 43, pp. 162-170.Boddington, L., & Kemp, S. 2009. Student debt, attitudes toward debt, impulsive buying, and financial management.UK journal of psychology, 28(2), 89-93.Brooking, C. 2007.Scotland Credit Card Market.Bank of Scotland.11(3), pp. 1-13.Dodge, S. 2013. Surge of Students from Asia and Eastern Europe Lifts Foreign Enrollments in Scotland. Chronicle of Higher Education, 38(9), 39-41.Durkin, T., 2006.Credit cards: use and consumer attitudes 1970-2000. FederalReserve Bulletin, 84, 623-634.Grady, B., 2008. Credit Card Marketing. New York: J. 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