History research paper custom essay

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I am leaving the topic up to you just keep it mind the course is tudor and stewart england and it has to be in the time period between 1485 and 1714.

select a topic in the history of England between 1485 and 1714, Your bibliography should have at least twenty (20) sources, ten (10) of which must be books, two (2) primary sources, and the remainder may be a combination of books, articles from reputable scholarly journals, and WEB resources. Books should be written by historians preferably, but reputable scholars in related disciplines may also be consulted. All of your selections must reflect current scholarship in the field.

RESEARCH PAPER. (7-10 pages.)The course syllabus and suggested readings provide you with themes, and background information which will enable you to think of a question(s) within the context of the course goals and objectives. Find background information on your topic also by consulting reference sources and web pages for introductions and summaries, and to find bibliographies or citations for secondary and primary sources.

The phases leading to the completion of the research paper are the following:
Selecting a Topic
The course syllabus and suggested readings provide you with themes, and background information which will enable you to think of a question(s) within the context of the course goals and objectives. Find background information on your topic also by consulting reference sources and web pages for introductions and summaries, and to find bibliographies or citations for secondary and primary sources. Please consult the research librarians. They will not do your research for you but they are invaluable resources.

? Pick a topic that you are interested in, intensely curious about, or know well

? Pick a topic that matches your capabilities

? Pick a topic which shows that you clearly understand the interpretive and conceptual tasks required by the specific assignment, course goals and objectives
? Pick a topic where you can demonstrate that the research you plan will be significant
? Pick a topic that can be researched in the time allowed
? Pick a topic that fits library resources – hard copy, interlibrary, and online -available to you
?
Research

Know your sources
Productive research begins with a clear understanding of the three types of sources used in academic writing: primary, secondary and tertiary sources.

A Primary Source is a work that was written or created at a time contemporary or very nearly contemporary with the period or subject being studied. Thus primary sources provide firsthand evidence of historical events. They include a very broad range of written records but depending upon the nature of your project records other than written ? art, artifacts, maps, photographs – may also be used. Primary sources are essential to the study, interpretation, and writing of history. Thus learning how to read and evaluate such sources is essential to success in this course. Analyzing primary source material requires not only that you develop the ability to ask sound questions, and exercise a judicious skepticism about whatever ?facts? you mine from the record, but that you also use your historical imagination to construct possible answers that may be latent rather than explicit in the document. As you evaluate primary sources it is well to apply the Time & Place and the Bias Rules:

Time & Place Rule– ?The closer in time and place a source and its creator were to an event in the past, the better the source will be.?

Bias Rule — ?every source is biased in one way or another.?

A good primary source therefore has:
? Direct connection to the event in the past;
? Eyewitness accounts of the event by participants and observers;
? Eyewitness accounts of the event, created afterwards, by participants and observers;
? Accounts of the event, created afterwards, by people who used interviews or evidence from the past event.

According to the Bias Rule ? since ?every source is biased in one way or another? three tasks confront you:
? Take nothing at face value;
? Critically and skeptically review all sources;
? Cross-check and verify your sources of evidence.

Examples of primary sources:
Archival records — (minutes of meetings, purchase invoices, financial statements, etc.) of an organization, institution (The University of Alaska Anchorage), business, or other group entity.
Artifacts — manufactured items such as clothing, furniture, tools, and buildings.
Autobiographies and memoirs
Books ? particularly if you are researching historiographical or biographical topics
Conference proceedings.
Government data and documents ? census statistics, economic data, court reports, legislative records.
Historical documents ? official papers, maps, treaties, etc.
Internet/electronic communications on email, list-servers, and newsgroups.
Interviews and speeches
Journal articles ? particularly if you are researching historiographical or biographical topics
Manuscript collections ? collected writings, notes, letters, diaries, and other unpublished works.
Newspaper advertisements
Newspaper or magazine articles written AT THE TIME of an event,
Original reports and research (results of experiments, survey research, fieldwork, lab reports, experiments, observations, etc.)
Patents
Recordings ? audio, video, photographs
Web/Internet ? Web sites that publish the author?s findings or research. Treat internet sources with great caution. Make sure that you decode online sites and that they are properly cited. Refer to the Internet Site Review Guide.

Wikipedia can be an appropriate place to troll for topic ideas (as is Google) but Wikipedia definitely IS NOT a venue for serious research and should not be cited in papers for this course as such. Anyone can contribute to it, and its material is not peer reviewed.
Works of art or literature (poems, short stories, paintings.)

Secondary ? Secondary sources are analyses, findings and/or interpretations and conclusions produced by historians and other scholars who have studied the primary sources of a period or a particular subject. Books, articles, and other writings by scholars and researchers are the conventional forms of secondary sources. Fundamentally these sources express the interpretations and arguments of historians. They are not direct sources of evidence. Unless of course if you are doing historiographical research. Remember that you are also a historian and it is your responsibility read all sources critically and come to your own conclusions.

At this point it is well to remember to apply again the Time and Place, and Bias rules.

Examples of secondary sources:
Biographies
Books ? Detailed analysis by scholars and experts with criticisms, commentaries, and interpretation of primary sources.
Commentaries
Dissertations
Journal articles
Literature reviews ? summaries of current primary literature within a specific field.
Newspaper articles ? Articles which report on earlier findings, or offer commentary or opinions.
Scholarly websites ? Published by scholars/experts in a subject
Web/Internet ? Websites that comment on earlier findings or research. (Treat internet sources with great caution. Make sure that you decode online sites and that they are and properly cited. Refer to the Internet Site Review Guide: use extreme caution when using the Internet as a source. (Remember, on the Internet, a page citing authoritative findings could have been published by anyone in the world).

Tertiary ? Encyclopedias, indexes, textbooks, and other reference sources which present summaries of or introductions to the current state of research on a topic, summarize or condense information from primary and secondary sources, or provide a list of primary and secondary sources of more extensive information.

Examples of tertiary sources:
Almanacs ? Good places to check for brief factual information and lists.
Databases and indexes ? These are key sources to check for articles on your topic. They can cover many subjects (Expanded Academic) or subject-specific
Dictionaries ? Use these for definitions or summaries of terms, ideas, etc. Dictionaries can be general (American Heritage, Webster?s, Oxford English Dictionary) or subject-specific (Dictionary of English History, Dictionary of American History).
Encyclopedias ? Encyclopedia articles can provide an introduction to a topic, or a summary of key points. Encyclopedias can be general (Encyclopedia Britannica) or subject-specific (Encyclopedia of Religion). Use all Encyclopedias very, very sparingly.
Popular magazine or newspaper articles.
Textbooks
Websites of general interest.

Use the bibliographies of the course texts, -required and suggested- to initiate your search for useful material

Scholarly journal articles are usually the best places to find the most up-to-date findings. Research too, the Electronic databases in the UAA Consortium Library. There you will have electronic access to databases such as Dissertation Abstracts, Historical Abstracts, J-Stor,
For monographs ?scholarly books on specialized topic ? keyword and subject searches at the Consortium should be researched
Check with the librarians at the Reference Desk. They know the Consortium resources best and will be happy to assist you.
Prepare a working bibliography
In our electronic age there are relatively easy ways to organize this on your computer. Here are some websites that will help you to format your bibliography if you plug in the appropriate information:
http://www.easybib.com/
http://citationmachine.net/
http://www.workscited4u.com/
http://www.rapidcite.com/
http://www.bibme.org/
http://swik.net/research+bibliography, http://camellia.shc.edu/literacy/tablesversion/lessons/lesson6/takingnotes.htm

Make sure that your research is comprehensive and covers all the available scholarly sources
A preliminary bibliography will help you to refine your research and to determine:
? which sources require detailed research
? which can be skimmed for background information
? which can be eliminated as not relevant

For those you decide to read follow the instructions in the Book Critique Guide.

Internet sources: Treat internet sources with great caution. Make sure that you decode online sites and that they are and properly cited. Refer to the Internet Site Review Guide.

Note Taking:
This is a critical part of writing well constructed essays. Note taking requires that you think actively about your source material and its relationship to your thesis. It is a reflective exercise in which you begin to build the evidence to support your thesis, argument, and conclusion. As you take notes keep in focus:

The aims of your own research. Take notes on evidence that confirms or challenges your thesis. Theses must be open to criticism during research, and can be confined, rejected, or modified.

The findings of previous research
You cannot afford to ignore previous research on your particular topic. You must be up-to-date on recent developments for awareness of current issues in your subject area will enhance the value of your own research and place it into perspective.

The nature of the sources used
This will influence critically the direction, methodology, and results of your own research.

Make sure that your bibliography includes all major academically credible sources including scholarly journal articles you have actually consulted
Make sure that all web-based sources used are scrupulously decoded;
Make sure that the bibliography conforms exactly to recommended style

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