Identify and categorize the primary research questions in an academic review article. custom essay

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Assignment Expectations
In relation to the review article that you selected and read:
1. Identify ONE primary research question that guides this literature review.
2. Explain how you determined that this is a primary research question. Do the authors explicitly state that it is one of their primary research questions? If not, what evidence is there that it is?
3. Categorize the research question according to each of the first two required background readings, i.e.: Is the question descriptive, relational, or causal (Trochim, 2006)? What approach to gap spotting does it represent: confusion spotting; neglect spotting (specifically overlooked, under-researched, or lack of empirical support); application spotting; or a combination of two or more of these five categories (Sandberg & Alvesson, 2011)?
4. Explain why you categorized the research question as you did, drawing support from the review article, Trochim (2006), and Sandberg and Alvesson (2011).
General Expectations
1. Length: 3-4 pages of double-spaced, 12-point font text, plus cover and reference page, and any tables or figures you may want to include (e.g. a graphic diagram of a theoretical model).
2. Structure: Narrative style, including a brief introduction in which you provide an overview of your paper.
3. Citations: Support each point that you make in your assessment with a citation.
4. Style: APA format.
5. Proofread: Your paper before uploading

Module 3 – Background
Relation of Research Questions to Theory

Required Materials
There are three sections of required readings in this module. The first focuses on identifying research questions in theoretical and empirical research articles and exploring the connections between those research questions and their theoretical foundations. The second section provides an overview of several key types of academic articles, and introduces academic review articles as one of those types. You will select and read one review article from a list of options provided. In the third section, you will then select and read one theoretical article and one empirical research article that is cited in the review article that you read.
I. The Nature of Research Questions
In the case and SLP assignments we are going to focus on identifying the research questions in an academic article, and how those questions relate to an article’s theoretical foundations. The authors of an academic article might explicitly identify their research questions, but often they do not. When research questions are not explicitly stated, they have to be discerned from statements that the authors make about the purpose(s) of their paper.
Here are three different approaches to categorizing research questions. You will be asked to draw upon all three in your case and SLP assignments in this module:
First, and simplest, is Trochim’s (2006) trio of descriptive, relational, and causal types of research questions:
In the second article, Sandberg and Alvesson (2011) investigate the various approaches that organizational researchers take to developing a research question based on existing literature. They also create a set of categories (Table 1, pp. 28-29) that represent five variations on this most common approach to developing research questions: identifying gaps in the existing literature that need to be explored.
The authors conducted some basic research to determine the relative frequencies of these five “gap-spotting” approaches in a diverse sample of organizational studies published in four leading journals over a three year period (2003-2005). They found that gap-spotting is the most common approach overall. It is also the approach that most doctoral students will take in developing their dissertation research questions:
? Sandberg, J., & Alvesson, M. (2011). Ways of constructing research questions: Gap-spotting or problematization?. Organization, 18(1), 23-44. doi:10.1177/1350508410372151.
Note: To access this article: (1) go to the Touro College library:; (2) select the eJournals tab; (3) enter the journal title, Organization, in the search field; (4) click on Search; (5) enter username = TUI, password = touro; (6) select the first database (SAGE) because the publication date is 2011; (7) once you reach the the journal’s home page, click on all issues; (8) select 2011; (9) then click on the January issue and look for the article.
In the third article (available in EBSCOWeb), Voss (2003) creates a “2 by 2” framework of four types of research questions that provide increasing levels of innovation and interest (see Figure 1 on p. 357). Although the field is marketing, the same concepts apply to other business disciplines as well. [Note: a “2×2” framework has two dimensions, each with two different categories, that then combine to create four “cells” in a matrix with four types of research questions. This is a common device for representing the range of possibilities in a conceptual or theoretical model):
? Voss, G. B. (2003). Formulating interesting research questions. Academy of Marketing Science Journal, 31(3) 356.
II. Read a Review Article
PhDs have a professional responsibility to contribute to their field in a variety of ways, but particularly through the creation and testing of new knowledge. In academic literature, there are several basic types of articles that each contribute to the creation and testing of new knowledge:
1. Theoretical Articles: A theoretical article develops new theoretical constructs and proposed conceptual relationships between those constructs. A theoretical article may be entirely conceptual, with the new theory based upon a combination of logic and ontological and epistemological insights into the existing literature on a particular topic.[Note: Ontology refers to the content, the “what”, of knowledge, whereas epistemology refers to the “how” of knowledge, or how we come to know the “what”. A module in ORG602 is devoted to developing an understanding of these two concepts that provide an overarching foundation for diverse approaches to research]. Theory can also be developed inductively through rigorous qualitative research through which the researchers identify themes and connections among the themes in narrative data (e.g. transcripts of interviews and/or focus groups with research participants). Key points: Theory is not tested in a theoretical article. If any data is collected, it is usually qualitative, not quantitative, and for the purpose of developing theory, not testing theory.
2. Empirical Research Articles: In an empirical research article, quantitative data is collected and analyzed, most often to test hypotheses that are derived deductively from a theory. The goal is to support or reject hypotheses in order to be able to better explain, predict, and/or control phenomena. However, not all empirical research is theory based – some is merely descriptive of patterns or trends (e.g. regarding demographic distributions, public opinion surveys, etc.) Descriptive empirical articles can provide support for identifying the scope of an issue or problem that needs to be researched, but provide inadequate support for most theory-based, hypothesis-testing doctoral research.
3. A Review Article is a third type of academic, peer-reviewed journal article. The purpose of a review article is to provide an in-depth overview of the theory and research related to a particular phenomenon. A review article can only be written on a very well developed area of theory and research, as there must be a considerable body of work over time to review. The rest of this section provides more detail about the nature of review articles:
Although theoretical and empirical research articles also include reviews of the literature, a review article is entirely focused on a comprehensive review. However, the authors of review articles do more than simply conduct a review of the relevant literature. Review articles, like theoretical and empirical research articles, typically have one or more research questions that help to focus the review. This focus then enables the authors to contribute substantively to the area of study by providing new ways to conceptualize the relevant literature, which can lead to new theoretical insights and fresh research possibilities.
A good review article helps the academic reader quickly get up to speed on the theory and research related to a particular phenomenon. Therefore, some journals publish review articles on a regular basis. For example, each December the Journal of Management, one of the top empirical journals in management, devotes an entire issue to publishing review articles related to a wide variety of management phenomena.
In this module you will begin a process that will extend across the remaining modules of ORG601 and intoxxx by choosing a review article that will give you an in depth overview of an area of theory and research that interests you. This does not have to be “the” topic that you hope to address in your own research. It is too early for most students to make those kinds of decisions, so please don’t put that kind of pressure on yourself. Instead, choose one of the review articles that interests you so that you can use it as a basis to work from in order to gain exeperience in applying the concepts from ORG601 and ORG602 to it.
Therefore, in the attached document, we have assembled the references and abstracts for a set of review articles on a diverse array of topics in sub-fields associated with business administration.
? Please click on this link to to the attached document and read through all of the article abstracts. Then select, find in the library, and read in depth one review article that piques your curiosity and/or relates to a potential research interest that you have. Note: As an alternative, you are welcome to find a similarly comprehensive review on a different topic, but please email the reference and abstract to your professor for approval before you begin to read it.
III. Read Two Articles Cited in the Review Article
In the review article that you selected and read in Part II above, identify two sources that the authors cite to support major points that they make regarding their review, then locate and read those two articles for the SLP assignment. For example, the authors usually cite the first article that introduced the theory that all of the subsequent work has been based upon. Try to find one theoretical article (hint: if it is published in the Academy of Management Review, it must be a theoretical article, since that journal only publishes theoretical articles), and one empirical research article.
Optional Materials
? Witcomb, A. (n.d.) Powerpoint presentation: How to develop a topic into a research question.
Pages 18-22 in the following article provide helpful criteria for developing research questions. Although the focus is on the field of education, the same principles apply to creating research questions in the field of business administration:

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