# Lung and Blood Pressure Essay

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A. Introduction to Blood Pressure (BP) (Heart Function Test)
Measuring blood pressure is quick and painless. Usually, the procedure involves using either a sphygmomanometer or a blood pressure machine. Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and recorded as two numbers — systolic pressure “over” diastolic pressure. For example, the doctor or nurse might say “130 over 80” as a blood pressure reading. This is written as 130/80.

Electronic blood pressure measuring devices are becoming the norm now and mercury is being phased out because of its hazardous nature. Most of these are accurate enough for routine clinical use and are relatively inexpensive. They eliminate many of the errors in blood pressure measurement that human beings can generate.

Purpose
In this lab, students will
• Use an electronic BP meter to measure BP.
• Make a graph of BP measurements for males and females.
• Analyze the data and compare the graphs for males and females.

Materials:
• Electronic BP meter (provided)
Procedure for Electronic measuring device
To take a blood pressure reading, you need to be relaxed and comfortably seated, with your arm well supported.
1. Wrap the cuff that inflates around your partner’s upper right or left arm.
2. Press the O/I start button to turn the unit on.
3. The cuff will start to inflate automatically.
4. An increasing pressure and tightening is felt on the upper arm.
5. After a few seconds the measurement starts with deflating. As the cuff deflates, the heartbeat symbol flashes at every heartbeat.
6. When the measurement is complete, the arm cuff completely deflates.
7. The machine will show you the values of systolic pressure, diastolic pressure and pulse.
8. The blood pressure is measured in terms of millimetres of mercury (mmHg).
9. After 2-3 minutes repeat the measurement 2 more times and take the mean value.

Lung Function Practical

Introduction to Peak Flow (Lungs Function Testing)
A peak flow meter and spirometer are easy to use instruments that measures the “peak expiratory flow rate”, which is how fast an individual can force air out of the lungs. The peak flow is an indicator of how well the lungs are functioning. The peak flow meter is used to help people with asthma manage the disease. The measurements from the meter can be used to evaluate the severity of an asthma attack, monitor treatment of chronic asthma, or detect lung function.

Purpose:
In this lab, students will
• Use a peak flow meter and a spirometer to measure peak expiratory flow rate.
• Calculate the peak expiratory flow rate for males and females.
• Graph the peak expiratory flow rate for males and females.
• Analyze the data and compare the graphs for males and females.

Materials:
1. A peak flow meter per group/2 Spirometers per class (both provided)
2. Cardboard mouthpiece, one for each student being tested

Experimental procedure for using manual peak flow meter
1. Look at the scale on the peak flow meter. Make sure the blue pointer is at the lowest possible value. Ignored the red, yellow and green arrows at this time.
2. Connect a new cardboard disposable mouthpiece of peak flow meter.
Caution: Always use a new cardboard disposable mouthpiece, but keep the mouth piece after use to use again in the spirometer reading.
3. Stand tall. If unable to stand, sit as upright position as possibly can.
4. Hold the meter with thumb and forefinger of one hand. Do not place your other hand on the peak flow meter.
5. Take as deep breath as you possibly can.
6. Place the mouthpiece in your mouth and seal with your lips so that air cannot escape. Nose should also be closed with fingers so that air should not pass through nose.
7. Blow as hard and as fast as possible. A quick, short blast of 1 to 2 seconds should be sufficient.

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