The organisation of work

1. Discuss the changes in the management of work over the last century; and how this has contributed to the quality and environmental legislation faced by modern organisations.It?s interesting to see how things have changed ? and how they have not ? over the last century. Organisations evolve over time. The implementation of classical management theory was the main focus of works by Taylor and Fayol, with business managers such as Ford being heavily influenced by these ideas. The first comprehensive theories of management appeared around 1920. People like Henri Fayoldescribed the various branches of management and their inter-relationships. In the early 20th century, people like Elton Mayoapproached the phenomenon of management from a sociologicalperspective.CLICK HERE FOR MORE INFORMATION ON THIS PAPER? PRICE?..The modern welfare state in Great Britain started to emerge in1906. It included the passing of the Old-Age Pensions Act in 1908, the introduction of free school meals in 1909, the Development Act 1909, which heralded greater Government intervention in economic development, and the enacting of the National Insurance Act 1911 setting up a national insurance contribution for unemployment and health benefits from work.In December 1942, Sir William Beveridge, proposed a series of measures to aid those who were in need of help, or in poverty. He proposed that ?All people of working age should pay a weekly National Insurance contribution. In return, benefits would be paid to people who were sick, unemployed, retired or widowed.? The basic assumptions of his report were that the National Health Service would provide free health care to all citizens. On 5 July 1948, the National Insurance Act, National Assistance Act and National Health Service Act came into force, forming the key planks of the modern UK welfare state. Quality Management was born around WW2. To solve the problem of bombs going off in factories, the UK?s Ministry of Defence based inspectors in factories that supplied munitions. If you wanted to be a supplier, you had to write down the procedures for making your product, you had to ensure that your workers worked to these procedures by inspecting their work and finally you had to have this whole method of working inspected by a Government inspector. From this seed, a whole forest of control and inspection has grown in the name of quality.This was a way of working which ensured that production met specifications. It was a method of control that was designed to ensure consistency of output. The inherent logic was quite straightforward and remains appealing ? you control how you do the work and hence you make what you say you are going to make. Quality became associated with conformance rather than improvement and quality assurance implied that conformance had been assured through inspection.ISO 14000 (Environmental) is similar to ISO 9000 (Quality Management) in that both pertain to the process of how a product is produced, rather than to the product itself. The concept of an environmental management system evolved in the early nineties. In 1992, the first Earth Summit was held in Rio-de-Janeiro, and served to generate a global commitment to the environment. In the same year, BSI Grouppublished the world?s first environmental management systems standard, BS 7750. This supplied the template for the development of the ISO 14000 series in 1996, by the International Organisation for Standardisation, which has representation from committees all over the world (ISO). As of 2010, ISO 14001 is now used by at least 223,149 organizations in 159 countries and economies. 2. What effects did the work of Taylor, Fayol, Ford and Mayo have on the transition from early industry to the organisations of today?There are a number of different ?schools? of management thought that have been developed over the past century. The main ?schools? of thought are:Classical ManagementThis was developed by Henri Fayol and it emphasised the following factors as being essential to an effective management process:a) The division of labour.b) A wide span of control.c) A tall organisational structure.d) An authoritarian style of management.Scientific Management.This method was developed in the USA in the early part of the 20th century by Frederick Taylor, building on the earlier work of Henri Fayol.Taylor also believed that a high division of labour was needed to produce more output, and he introduced a piece-rate style of payment for the workforce (this meant that the workers received an amount of money per ?piece? that they produced, thereby linking their pay to their productivity).Taylor also worked very closely with Henry Ford in developing the world?s first moving production-line for the model ?T? Ford car. Taylor?s theory and methods were widely adopted as businesses saw the benefits of increased productivity levels and lower unit costs. The most notable advocate was Henry Ford who used them to design the first ever production line, making Ford cars. This was the start of the era of mass production.Ford recognised that with the right techniques, cars could be made affordable for the general public ? and that the general public would want them. Ford focused on making the manufacturing process more efficient so he could produce more cars and charge less for each. Some of Ford?s greatest innovations came not in the cars themselves but in the processes for creating them, like his 1914 introduction of a moving conveyor belt at the Highland Park plant, which dramatically increased production. This method of management paid close attention to ?time and motion? studies, where each worker is timed when performing a task, and then this provides the basis for the worker?s level of output per day (e.g. if it took a worker 2 minutes to perform a task, then this could be done 30 times per hour, and 240 times in an 8-hour day).If the worker completed more than his designated number of tasks per day, then he would be eligible for a monetary bonus.Taylor believed that efficiency and discipline were the two greatest features of a good manager and a good workforce, but what he failed to recognise was the high level of alienation and low levels of morale and motivation that this system produces in the workforce.Human Relations ManagementThe Human Relations ?school? of management thought looks beyond mere financial and productivity variables in deciding the best way to manage a workforce.These managers believe that a worker?s performance can be improved by being given praise and recognition for their efforts, that workers should be consulted in any decision that affects them, and that the leader should be democratic rather than autocratic.Probably the most famous study of Human Relations Management was carried out by Elton Mayobetween 1927 and 1932 at the Western Electric Company, at Hawthorne in Chicago, USA.He studied a group of six female workers over this time, and tried to establish a link between their working conditions and their productivity levels. He changed many of the working conditions (e.g. hours of work, rest periods, lighting, heating), and he discovered that the level of output rose each time.He concluded that the only factor that was needed to consistently achieve a high level of productivity was a strong level of social interaction and teamwork amongst the 6 employees. He called this the ?Hawthorne Effect?.Neo-Human Relations ManagementThere are a number of management writers and theorists who built on the earlier work of Mayo, agreeing that the way that employees are treated, and the praise and recognition that is given to them by their managers, can have a tremendous psychological effect on their productivity levels. The main writers in this field are Abraham Maslow, Frederick Herzberg and Douglas McGregor.CLICK HERE FOR MORE INFORMATION ON THIS PAPER? PRICE?..Contingency ManagementThis management ?school? of thought was developed in the 1960s and, unlike the other theories, it believes that there is no single approach to management which will suit all businesses and all employees. In other words, some situations in a business will call for a more authoritarian management style (e.g. a crisis), whereas in other situations a more participative ?hands-on? approach to management will be required.ConclusionNowadays companies like McDonald?s and Tesco use Taylor?s Scientific Management Theory as it contributes to increased efficiency. McDonald?s train every new crew member scientifically rather than leaving them to train themselves to ensure efficiency among workers. They also implement bonus and extra incentive systems to give encouragement to the employees to perform well to meet their targets. It aims to bring everyone?s production efficiency into full play to accomplish optimum profit. Moreover, they cooperate with the workers to ensure that the scientifically developed methods are being followed and it will be eligible to improve the production efficiency. Across the globe, this theory has also made an important contribution to the business world we see today and improvised many areas of management. Taylor?s ideology still plays an important role in the current management systems and this has increased and improved production efficiency. Much of the core of Scientific Management remains with us today, where it has been modified, updated and given a human face. McDonald?s has achieved huge success and has spread worldwide almost in every major city as it has successfully applied the scientific management theory in its business philosophy to reap enormous benefits. Therefore, it is important for organisations which want to be as successful to focus on its resources such as labour, environment and the theories of management. It is clear that the management and leadership styles that are adopted by a business and its management will have a measurable effect on the motivation level, the morale and the job satisfaction of the employees.Most businesses use elements of Human Relations management, since these theories tend to be preferred by all concerned (the managers, the employees and trade unions).Nevertheless, the relationship between the management style that is used within the business and the level of motivation within the workforce is a subject of much debate within industry.Most managers find that the situation that they are in and the people that they are dealing with will influence the style of management that they use.3. Mayo is the latest of these early writers but he was working in the 1920?s, so what has changed since then (referring to the management of human relations? approach)?Elton Mayo founded the Human Relations Movement. Experiments undertaken by Mayo took place at the Hawthorne plant in the USA during the 1930s. His work illustrated that if the company or managers took an interest in employees and cared for them, it had a positive effect on their motivation. When managers took a greater interest in employees they felt more valued and empowered. His work also showed that employees often work best in teams. He also showed that they were more motivated if they were managed and consulted more.Developing peopleThe Mayo principles are very much in line with ARM?s focus on developing its people as part of its business strategy. Employees at ARM work within learning and development teams. Information is shared and employees are viewed both as partners in the business and as internal customers.Managers have responsibility for motivating individuals and their teams. Important elements of this include:ú Communicating and explaining the ARM vision, values and strategy to all team members so everyone is working to the same level.ú Providing appropriate training and induction for new employees as well as coaching for all in order to develop skills, confidence and self-reliance.ú Carrying out one-to-one meetings and employee reviews to assess performance and set personal and team objectives.ú Putting in place succession planning for the team and manager roles to ensure long term performance.Personal development is a key HR strategy at ARM. Regular reviews encourage individuals to reflect upon the contributions that they make whilst providing feedback and support that enables them to develop their professional capability.4. How has the structure of organisations changed over the last century to meet the needs of operating in a global market?5. Name two changes in the way we work that you anticipate will take place during the next 20 years. What effect will these have on the management of work?CLICK HERE FOR MORE INFORMATION ON THIS PAPER? PRICE?..

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