GEOG3761 Caring as Country Overview of the topic being studied: The topic has been developed to raise your awareness about the amazing array of caring as country work that Indigenous groups are undertaking in Australia. It also aims to help develop your thinking and understanding of the implications of whiteness in social, administrative and funding structures in Australia.You will be encouraged to consider how whiteness impedes Indigenous groups ability to care for country and share ideas about how to overcome these challenges to work towards decolonisation of the sector. For millennia, Indigenous knowledge practices have been fundamental to sustaining Indigenous livelihoods and remain important in many parts of the world. In Australia, many Indigenous Australians use the terms caring as country or caring for country to describe their connection to country. Country is . . .more than a geographical area: it is shorthand for all the values, places, resources, stories and cultural obligations associated with Indigenous peoples rights and identity (Robinson et al., 2004, 1386). Increasingly, non Indigenous scientists are engaging with Indigenous groups to consider collaborative approaches to Natural Resource Management (NRM). While there have been many benefits of these collaborations, working crossculturally is an immensely challenging task and often Indigenous groups and their knowledges are marginalised in the process. The key goal for GEOG 3761 is to develop the capacity of students to engage respectfully, effectively and equitably in cross-cultural collaborations. Drawing on case studies from across Australia and Internationally this course aims to be achieved by: Engaging with the context and history of race relations and whiteness in Australia; making Indigenous worldviews about human/environment relations visible; considering a range of contemporary and historical case studies about the challenges, opportunities and innovations in Indigenous engagement; and, finding mechanisms to work towards decolonising NRM engagement practices. Educational aims ?The aims of this topic are to: ? Develop the capacity of students to engage effectively, equitably, ethically and respectfully in crosscultural collaborations; ? Define and discuss some of the differences and similarities in worldviews underpinning Indigenous Australian Caring as Country and Western approaches to Natural Resource Management (NRM); Increase the awareness of students of their own cultural perspectives on human environment relations and challenge them to consider other ways of thinking; ? Make Indigenous worldviews visible with respect to Caring as Country; ? Increase awareness of race relations in Australia in the context of country and the ?challenges facing Indigenous Australians in contemporary Australia; ? Using a range of case studies, introduce students to contemporary debates in which ?the competing interests of Indigenous groups and other stakeholders have led to ?conflict, compromise and innovation; ? Identify and discuss key challenges Indigenous groups face in working collaboratively ?with NRM practitioners and institutional structures; ? Provide opportunities for students to engage with pedagogical, teaching and ?learning approaches with respect to Indigenous issues; and, ? Provide opportunities for students to develop knowledge, skills and mechanisms for addressing historical injustices and for engaging with Australian Indigenous groups in effective and equitable ways. Expected learning outcomes Upon successfully completion, students should be able to: Explain the concept of Caring as Country and the importance of this perspective; ? Recognise the complexity and influence of cultural assumptions on all sides of cross ?cultural engagement; ? Communicate effectively through oral and written assessments; Appreciate the importance of ethical behaviour in crosscultural engagement; ? Recognise power and race relations as they occur in NRM; Engage more effectively and be better informed in contemporary issues and debates ?regarding Indigenous Australia; ? Develop ideas for pedagogical, teaching and learning approaches related to ?Indigenous issues; and, ? Develop skills and knowledge that can be applied to effective crosscultural engagement. Below is an overview of the lectures of the university semester to give you a better understanding of what will be studied throughout the semester: Lecture details To consider the different aspects of effective crosscultural collaboration, the lectures of the semester are organised into four major sections: 1) Setting the scene for Indigenous engagement: So often, Western white perspectives in NRM are assumed culture neutral and race neutral yet nothing is further from the truth. This first section will help us to unpack some of the assumptions that dominant society takes for granted to better understand the mechanisms by which dominant culture gains its dominance. We will also consider the concept of whiteness and how race privilege has, and continues to, effect Indigenous engagement in NRM. This context is so important for any engagement with Indigenous groups and frames the discussion for the remainder of the course. ? 2) Making Indigenous worldviews visible: Seeing NRM through a Western scientific perspective tends to dismiss and make all other cultural perspectives invisible. This set of lectures serves to do the opposite to make Indigenous worldviews and ideas visible. This is not to create a binary between knowledge systems, but to illustrate the importance of valuing difference and to really highlight the invisible domination of Western systems of thinking. By illustrating the conventionally invisible, these lectures establish an ethical obligation to engage with, and respect, Indigenous worldviews. ? 3) Contemporary challenges, opportunities and innovations: Indigenous groups are engaging in NRM in a range of structures, processes and activities across Australia. This series of lectures considers case studies from across Australia about Indigenous engagement in mining, cultural heritage, national park management and water management. ? 4) Towards decolonisation?: So often Indigenous groups have decisions and solutions imposed from dominant society. This section of the course looks at mechanisms for decolonising Indigenous engagement in NRM. It considers governance arrangements and will finish off with some important ideas about how to make space for Indigenous groups? to care as country. ? Combined, these sections are designed to introduce you to some of the major concepts of Indigenous engagement, document important history and innovative case studies, and help you to engage ethically with Indigenous groups in your future careers. Referencing: Proper acknowledgement of sources and appropriate referencing format Referencing Style You are required to follow the authordate (Harvard) style. Guidelines are available in the following books: Hay, I. 2012 Communicating in Geography and the Environmental Sciences, 4th edn, Oxford University Press, Melbourne. Hay, I., Bochner, D., Blacket, G. and Dungey, C. 2012 Making the Grade: A Guide to Successful Communication and Study, 4th edn, Oxford University Press, Melbourne. Useful Resources and Other Information Appropriate Terminology, Representations and Protocols of Acknowledgement for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples The term Indigenous will be used as an overall term to include both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia and Indigenous peoples internationally. Wherever possible, the language or Nation name will be used. Please familiarise yourself with the Appropriate Terminology pdf document attached to the order that outlines the language you will be expected to use in the research journal. This document provides insight into both the appropriate and less appropriate terminology with explanations. It is important to understand these matters. Assignment Details: Writer, this assignment is for my tutorial at university and it requires me to explain to other people in my tutorial class so write everything in a way that is easy for me to explain to my class. Please do not use complicated language that will make it too hard for me to explain to my class. Workshop Activity: Indigenous sovereignty and agreement making Recognition and restitution for Indigenous sovereignty is fundamental to securing justice for Indigenous groups worldwide. This workshop provides an opportunity to consider a range of approaches to agreement making that seek to acknowledge and compensate for injustices to Indigenous sovereignty. It begins with a discussion of some critiques and challenging elements of the Native Title Act. The workshop will then consider agreement making processes and outcomes in James Bay and Nunavik in Canada, Ngai Tahu in Aotearoa/New Zealand, the contract law approach by the Ngarrindjeri in South Australia and the South Australian Statewide Native Title process run by the South Australian Native Title Service. Workshop Activity to do: Read the paper (attached to the order): Agius, P. Jenkin, T. Jarvis, S. Howitt, R. and Williams R. 2007 (Re)asserting Indigenous Rights and Jurisdictions within a Politics of Place: Transformative Native of Native Title negotiations in South Australia Geographical Research 45 (2) 194202. Summarise and discuss the key concepts raised in the above paper which will then be used to explain to other participants in the workshop who will not be as familiar with the reading. Other Activities to do: Read the following lecture reading by MoretonRobinson, as this will be discussed in this workshop: http://www.borderlands.net.au/vol3no2_2004/moreton_possessive.htm The start of this workshop will discuss the above lecture reading and some of the critiques of native title. Consider the following quotes by Indigenous writers Aileen MoretonRobinson and Fabienne BayetCharlston and nonIndigenous lawyer Lisa Strelein: The idea that you have to have a physical presence on the land to enjoy ones entitlements is based on conceptions of white property ownership, which requires evidence of human occupation in the form of fences, title deeds or residences. ?signifiers of white possession are imputed as the only measure of Indigenous possession (MoretonRobinson 2015, 88). ? Traditional law and custom in Indigenous societies does contain a normative system of rules but they are intrinsic to an intersubstantiation of humans, ancestral being and land. Indigenous people are the human manifestations of the land and creator beings, they carry title to the land through and on their bodies. Thus the physicality of Indigenous people is testimony to the existence of particular tracts of country. The relationship between people and their country is synonymous and symbiotic. This is why the connection to land is never broken and why no other Indigenous group claimed or could claim Yorta Yorta country. (Moreton Robinson 2015, 84, emphasis added). ? So claiming native title these days is a bit like me saying to you In your second language, prove to me reality. (BayetCharlton 2003, 180). ? The doctrine of native title has replaced terra nullius with a basis for dispossession no less reliant on a conception of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander society as a relic of prior sovereignty (Strelein 2004, 192) ? Questions to answer What does MoretonRobinson mean by they carry title to the land through and on their bodies? ? What do these quotes highlight about the native title system in Australia? ? For the remainder of the class you will work in small groups to discuss the case studies from your readings about agreement making: 6. Summarise and discuss the case study from your reading with others and outline the key elements of your case study approach to agreement making about sovereignty. ? As a group you will then discuss: ? What are the strengths and limitations of your case study? ? What are the broader issues/messages/considerations that your case study illuminates? The Te Runanga o Ngai Tahu Act 1996 was a creative way of ensuring that the tribal collective was ?recognised in a contemporary society which is constantly changing and evolving (ORegan et al. ?2006, 523). Discuss the importance of this statement. Reflect on the case study to (re)consider the capacity of Australia to secure just settlement to Indigenous groups in Australia. 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